Scientists attribute global warming plateau to natural variations

According to research by McGill University physics professor Shaun Lovejoy, the temporary halt in global warming trends is indicative of natural fluctuations in temperature. This viewpoint is derived from the statistical analysis of global temperatures in the period between 1998 and 2013. The physics professor noted that the variations connected to cooling trends veiled warming effects occurring globally. Continuous increase in carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions feeds the phenomenon.

In a paper published in Geophysical Research Letters, Shaun Lovejoy highlights the accuracy of a statistical methodology applied in the study. This is in contrast to an earlier study that concluded that global warming was not just a natural variation in global climate. The study had employed pre-industrial temperature proxies in the evaluation of historical climate patterns.

The professor’s recent report indicated that despite the fact that global average temperatures stayed high in relation to trends observed in the past, they fell below most estimates. Scientists used advanced computer models to make predictions in terms of the effects of greenhouse gas emissions covering the period 1998 to 2013. Also known as, hiatus or pause, the slowing down in warming effects throughout the 15-year period has managed to draw the attention of the scientific community in a big way.

Some scientists have begun questioning the view that global warming in the industrial era is due to human activities involving the burning of fossil fuels. Professor Shaun Lovejoy indicated that the earth experienced a natural cooling fluctuation of between 0.28 to 0.37 degrees Celsius in the 15-year period under review. This pattern tallies with historical trends occurring every 20 to 50 years. The professor pointed out that proxies, such as tree rings, ice cores, and lake sediment provide researchers with solid illustrations of these variations.

 

 

Bird backpacks highlight wood thrush migration

Conservationists around the globe are puzzled by the disappearance of migratory songbirds. The development has triggered widespread investigations into possible causes of the worrying trend. Several sources cite loss of habitat, climate change, light pollution and acid rain as key factors in the inquest. Conservationists are diligently examining the species’ migratory habitats in a bid to collect flight data.

They are keen on understanding their movements from the moment they leave breeding sites. The academics believe the birds are faced with threats along their traditional migratory routes. A team of researchers from the York University has compiled a pioneering migratory connectivity map detailing movements of wood thrushes. The researchers employed tracking devices to connect the dots between breeding and winter sites.

The geolocator gadgets known as backpacks comprise a light sensor, chip, clock and a battery. Researchers identified a 4,000 kilometers or 2,480 miles path stretching between North America and Central and South America. However, conservationists face data collection challenges because the devices are incapable of transmitting data. This means manual device retrieval is required at the breeding and winter sites.

The team tracked more than 100 birds emanating from seven breeding and four winter sites. They learned that wood thrushes from Canada migrate to dissimilar sites when compared to those from the United States. The tracking revealed the fact that tracking routes are predicted by longitude since songbirds breeding east and north migrate to east and south in the winter.

Data gathered shows patterns of behavior needed by researchers to identify areas of activity. Almost three-quarters of wood thrushes fly across the Gulf of Mexico from the furthest point on the Yucatan peninsula to end up in the northern gulf coast, Louisiana. The data collected will enable conservationists to instigate habitat protection projects around the key breeding and winter sites.

 

Human activity blamed for rising sea level in western tropical Pacific Ocean

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A study conducted by Old Dominion University and the University of Colorado Boulder reveals that sea levels in the tropical Pacific Ocean are set to continue ascending due to human activity. The conclusion is based on comparisons made between historical and present data collected using satellite altimeters and traditional tide gauges just off the coasts of the Philippines and northeastern Australia. The study was aimed at revealing the impact of Pacific Decadal Oscillation or PDO on sea levels in the Pacific.

The PDO climatic phenomenon represents temperature patterns likened to El Nino in the Pacific Ocean. The patterns typically last up to 20 to 30 years and are linked to regional and global sea levels. The study involved reconstruction of sea levels recorded since the 1950s. Researchers merged satellite altimeter and tide gauge data to derive better understanding about the influence of PDO on the Pacific as well as global trends.

The sea levels in parts of the Pacific showed no significant changes when the Pacific Decadal Oscillation phenomenon was subtracted from the equation. NASA climate models played a crucial role in the assessment. The models also showed impact of warming effects in the Indian Ocean. Estimations carried out near the Philippines and northeast Australia show an annual rise of about 1 centimeter due to anthropogenic warming. The rises ultimately contribute to the intensity of severe weather.

Some sections of the scientific community estimate that global sea levels may go up by about 1 meter by the end of the 21st century. This is largely attributed to the continued increase in greenhouse emissions. Scientists expect sea levels on the western coast of North America to climb when the Pacific Decadal Oscillation shifts from warm to cool phase. They link the phenomenon to a decade long stagnation occurring in that area.

 

 

Travel guide to New York

Visiting the Big Apple translates to loads of fun, but there is a lot of planning that goes into it. Visitors need to work around essential information about transport, weather, events, attractions, geography and even trivial details such as how to wave a taxi. It goes without saying, a well-planned trip is more enjoyable.

Geography

New York City is comprised of five boroughs. Its avenues and streets run in distinct directions; avenues typically run north and south whereas streets flow east and west. One-way thoroughfares complement them.

Manhattan can be quite confusing for first-time visitors, and you might need the services of a tour guide or a good GPS device. Brooklyn and Queens form part of the Long Island, while the Bronx is geographically attached to the United States mainland. There are ferries, bridges and tunnels connecting the islands.

Transportation

NYC is served by an efficient transport system and traversing its five boroughs is a breeze. Tourist information centers provide detailed tips about airports, subways, buses, taxis and ferries. To use the subway and buses, you need a MetroCard sold at subway stations. Taking the city experts double-decker bus, helicopter or boat leads to memorable experiences.

Events and Attractions

New York City’s entertainment scene is vibrant and guaranteed to offer discerning visitors riveting moments. The city is abuzz with a variety of events throughout the year. New York boasts some high profile landmarks and attractions. These include the Empire State Building, Central Park, Times Square, among others. The list of must-see attractions is almost endless.

Experiencing NYC from a waterway taxi (ferry) is amazing. These aquatic hop-on and hop-off shuttles are available between points in Manhattan, New Jersey and the harbor. The skyline views are both refreshing and stunning.

Experiencing NYC from a waterway taxi (ferry) is amazing. These aquatic hop-on and hop-off shuttles are available between points in Manhattan, New Jersey and the harbor. The skyline views are both refreshing and stunning.

 

Guide to Burgundy attractions

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Burgundy lies in an area bordered by the river Loire, as well as the Franche-Comté and Champagne districts to the east. While the Rhone Alpes region borders it to the south. Its capital, Dijon is a vibrant cultural, administrative and commercial hub. The climate in the region is continental, the summers are relatively warm, and the winters are quite cold. It is also easy to book holiday rentals in Burgundy.

Attractions

The four departments that make-up Burgundy (Côte-d’Or, Saône-et-Loire, Yonne and Nièvre) are tourist wonderlands in their own right. Côte-d’Or is home to the mediaeval hospice at Beaune. The extraordinary ancient monument plays hosts to Flemish art pieces, which include Roger van der Weyden’s remarkable alterpiece.

In Beaune, visitors enjoy cellars and estate visits or embark on a memorable tour around the palace of the dukes of Burgundy and Cathedral located in Dijon. There are good quality holiday properties in Burgundy that complement the attractions to make this region an awesome travel destination..

Saône-et-Loire and Yvonne

Saône-et-Loire welcomes visitors with sights and sounds of its finest romanesque cathedrals whose architectural magnificence captures the imagination. While the Morvan hills are majestically decorated by medieval sculptures, they sit on its edges in an astonishing manner.

Yvonne features the Abbaye de Vézelay, aUNESCO World Heritage Site, it is the point of departure for pilgrimage trails headed for Santiago de Compostella. For a boating experience with a difference, head to Auxerre, the area is popular with tourists gathering on the Yonne and Burgundy canal. In Nièvre, the exceptional natural beauty of the Morvan natural park never fails to dazzle.

In Beaune, visitors enjoy cellars and estate visits or embark on a memorable tour around the palace of the dukes of Burgundy and Cathedral located in Dijon. There are good quality holiday properties in Burgundy that complement the attractions to make this region an awesome travel destination.

 

What you should know about semantic web

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Semantic Web is a set of activities within the World Wide Web Consortium aimed at developing technologies to publish readable data. It is based on the idea of ​​adding semantic and ontological metadata to the web. The extra information that describe the contents, meaning and relationship must be provided in a formal way, so that automatically evaluation will be possible for machines.

The objective is to improve the Internet expanding interoperability between computer systems using intelligent agents. These are computer programs that seek information without human operators.

Tim Berners-Lee tried from the beginning to include semantic information on the establishment of the internet, but for various reasons it was not possible.

The Semantic Web is an extension of the Web by which one attempts to automatically filter information accurately. It is necessary to make the information that lies on the web understandable by the machines. Especially the content, regardless of the syntax structure .

This is done taking into account the development and construction of agents responsible for processing that information and adequately filtering them. As a result, agents must retrieve and manipulate pertinent information which requires an integration without fracturing the web, but still taking full advantage of existing infrastructure.

Through this kind of semantic web, it becomes possible to get solutions to common problems in finding information through the use of infrastructure or common processes by which it is feasible to share, process and transfer information easily.

Today, the World Wide Web is based mainly on documents written in HTML, a markup language that serves mainly to create hypertext on the net. HTML can adjust the visual appearance of a document and include multimedia objects in the text (pictures , diagrams dialog, etc.).

But offers little chance for categorizing the elements that make up the text beyond the typical structural features, as with other languages ​​(LaTeX type).

HTML allows using a visualization tool (such as a browser or user agent) to, for example, show a catalog of items for sale. The HTML code of a catalog can explain things like the document title but there is no way to specify within the HTML code M270660 if the product is a “battery Acme ” with a ” retail price ” € 200 , or if other consumer product (ie , a battery is not a musical instrument , or a pot).

The Semantic Web would look to resolve these deficiencies. This technology provides a description of the contents, such as RDF and OWL in addition to XML, the markup language designed to describe data. These technologies combine to provide explicit descriptions of web resources (whether these are catalogs, forms, maps, documentary or other object). This content is revealed as the data in a data base accessible by web or tags embedded in the document (usually in XHTML, or XML directly). These labels allow content managers to interpret.

Barriers

The massive development and diffusion of the Semantic Web has some difficulties that are still hard to overcome: one is technological and the other is related to the lack of interest of webmasters.

Technologies to express the information in the format required have existed for years. Perhaps the most specialized component is OWL, which exists as W3C standard since 2004. The technology is the missing component that enables to convert automatically rich text content of web pages in OWL brands. The Semantic Web requires the creators of web pages to translate content in OWL , that can be interpreted by semantic agents.

But, this is not feasible due to the size of the Web and its unstoppable growth. Fortunately, many pages have formatted information and can perform this conversion automatically. For example, a site with thousands of movies which includes information such as title, director, release date; this information is neatly arranged and classified into a database.

 

 

Understanding Components of the Semantic Web

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The main components of the Semantic Web are the meta and representation standards XML, XML Schema, RDF, RDF Schema and OWL and the SPARQL query language for data RDF. The OWL Web Ontology Language Overview describes the function and relationship of each of these components of the Semantic web:

XML provides a surface syntax for structured documents, but provide them with no restriction on the meaning.

XML Schema is a language for defining the structure of XML documents.

RDF is a data model for resources and relationships that can be established between them. Provides a basic semantics for this data model that can be represented using XML.

RDF Schema is a vocabulary for describing properties and classes of RDF resources, with a semantics for generalization hierarchies established between such properties and classes.

OWL is a language for defining ontologies from the detailed description of properties and classes, such as relationships between classes (eg disjunction), cardinality (eg, only one), equality, types of more complex properties, characterization of properties (eg symmetry), and enumerated classes.

SPARQL is a query language for RDF data sets. Also in such an XML format specification detailing the way in which the results are structured also included.

Usability and use of the Web and its interconnected resources can increase the semantic web through:

Documents tagged with semantic information (compare this with the <meta> HTML tag, used to facilitate the work of the robots). It is intended that this information is interpreted by the computer with a capacity comparable to the human reader. Labeling can include descriptive metadata from other documentaries or protocol aspects.

Common metadata vocabularies (Ontology) and maps between vocabularies that allow document compilers to have clear ideas about how to label for automatic agents to use the information contained in the metadata (eg, author metadata).

Automatic agents that perform tasks for users of metadata of the Semantic Web

(Often with their own agents) Web Services to provide information to the agents (eg, service guarantees to an agent who could check whether an e-commerce has a history of poor service or generate spam).

The primary suppliers of this technology are the URIs that identify resources with XML and namespaces.

Currently , there are niches that have started pilot with the transformation to the Semantic Web :

  •     Site implemented an RDF ontology for Ontoguate searches – Guatemala Tourism Ontology .
  •    Government Open Data Systems in several countries , are in RDF format.
  •    Open Data at the National Library of France > data.bnf.fr
  •    Intranets knowledge of multinational companies.
  •    Embedding metadata in e-commerce systems .
  •    Semantic engine results on Google searches.

 

 

 

Guide to writing a thesis statement

finance textbook

A thesis is an idea or proposition whose content needs proof; the author asserts actuality. If the hypothesis is not tenable, it must be discarded. Otherwise, it can be stated in the thesis.

A thesis is generally considered a statement intended to highlight the essence of complex theories in a pragmatic and easily digestible fashion. The difference between a theorem and a thesis falls within the pragmatic field of teaching of the statement.

If a thesis is wrong, no kind of evidence can justify it. The proof depends on the type of rules that apply. A working hypothesis is a provisionally established thesis.

The antithesis and synthesis collectively form the dialectical triad. A scientific form of a thesis is the hypothesis.

Scientific theories

A scientific theory is not subject to special rules. To increase the acceptance of a theory in the scientific environment, a thesis should satisfy the following:

-   be a clear and well-defined judgment,
–   should not be falsifiable,
–   remain the same during presentation,
–   restrict any other accepted thesis,
–   not contain a logical contradiction,
–   be supported by verifiable facts,
–   be a self-evident judgment.

A thesis statement can only be called a scientific theory if its theoretical basis can be viewed as being part of the established knowledge. Steps aimed at validating or invalidating a hypothesis depend on the type of rules applicable.

It features seven segments, and these include title page, an abstract section, process, conclusion, references, appendixes as well as table of figures.

In this regard, an abstract is a brief representation of the thesis statement. If the abstract is published separately, it must be accompanied by a bibliographic reference to the text. The international standard for the preparation of abstracts is ISO 214. Abstracts generally included in scientific journals and help with writing a thesis statement.

Writing a thesis statement

Investing In Precious Metals

investing in metals

Investing in precious metals is an attractive route for many investors, particularly when they are hovering in bullish market territory. One of the most significant factors influencing the market appeal is that no metal is ever worth zero.

Metals sustain intrinsic value regardless of economic dynamics. However, investing in metals is not clear-cut, it is sensible to blend them with other instruments to achieve a balanced portfolio.

Metals offer reliable protection against inflation and other forms of investment risk such as political uncertainties. Their link to stocks and bonds is considerably minimal. Gold is undoubtedly more popular but platinum, palladium and silver also feature prominently in the market.

These three have experienced momentous price increases over the last few years. Demand for metals is rising, but price volatility is still a reality. Investment strategies differ depending on experience, they range from conservative to aggressive and speculative. Experienced traders are more comfortable taking short-term positions.

Goldman Sachs in favor of retaining commodities as competitors cut

investing in metals

Goldman Sachs Group Inc. (GS) revealed that the justification for holding commodities is still sensible; this in turn strengthens the basis for investing in oil and metals, although some financial institutions are withdrawing from the commodities market.

Analysts argue that commodities still present a viable means for investors to spread their holdings by blending them with equities and bonds. They are also useful for hedging against inflation. It is estimated that the appetite for holding commodities will pick up in a couple of years when growth is expected to accelerate.

Although commodities have not been offering attractive returns in the last few years in comparison to shares and bonds, Goldman Sachs believes there are valid reasons for holding a portion as a means of diversifying a portfolio over the long term.

However, other financial institutions such as JPMorgan Chase & Co. (JPM), Barclays Plc (BARC), and Morgan Stanley (MS) are abandoning some of their commodities ventures. The development may result in Goldman consolidating its market share.

According to a report published by Goldman mid-April, the company forecasts decline in the commodities outlook, at least for the short-term. It also predicts that the Standard & Poor’s GSCI Enhanced Commodity Index might fall by 4 percent over a period of one year.

Market Performance

The S&P GSCI Enhanced Commodity Index rose by 4.3 percent in 2014 compared to previous years (2012 and 2013). On other hand, equities climbed by at least 1.1 percent this year, this is at the back of a strong showing in both 2012 and 2013. The Bloomberg U.S. Treasury Index also performed favorably this year by rising to 2.2, it recorded losses the previous year despite having gained by 2 percent in 2012.

Growth expectations surrounding the commodity market in the next few years are based on the understanding that global growth is set to steer towards an expansion period as regards the business cycle.

Hedging

Commodities have long been linked to the capacity for hedging a portfolio against inflation. The Goldman Sachs report also takes note of an increased risk of inflation rising in the next few years. The report attributed this development to the cutting of interest rates by central banks around the world as they aim to boost stimulus following the financial crisis.