The history of accounting


The history of accounting and its techniques is linked to the development of trade, industry, agriculture and economic activities. Since its inception, it sought to preserve the record of transactions and the results obtained in the business. Archaeologists have found the Inca Empire civilizations of ancient Egypt and Rome varied manifestations of accounting records, which in a basic way constitute a record of the inputs and outputs of products sold and money. The use of the currency was important for the development of accounting.

Accounting in Ancient Rome

There is difficulty in providing objective data on the development of accounting in Rome, by the scarcity of documents held on the matter and formally ignorance on this subject.

Medieval Period

The accounts had to be developed from scratch , especially in time of trade boom , which had its first big boost with the Crusades. Two great military orders of the Templars and the Teutonic Knights, developed during the twelfth and thirteenth improved accounting systems, probably influenced by the practices of Lebanese merchants with which both orders had contact in its infancy.

The Teutonic Knights moved their activity to the Baltic regions and there maintained contact with the commercial cities of the Hanseatic League . This series developed with prophecy factor accounting, ie the commission that is accountable to his principal. While Italian merchants had greater attention to equity accounting basis, were more adapted to the merchant contract on employees .

As a natural consequence, the accounting practice would develop new methods in these countries, and would in all these Italian republics where modern accounting arise.

The Renaissance

In the Renaissance, the emergence of the concept of productive capital and credit development, laid the necessary foundations for developing an accounting system.

Arises primarily reflecting the accounts receivables and payables of people. By extension, it is thought to bring an account for all assets owned and other present gains and losses. This set of accounts led to the development of double-entry accounting system .

The Birth of double -entry bookkeeping

Historians estimate that double entry bookkeeping appeared around 1340 in Genoa (Italy ) . The invention of printing generalized this approach, particularly since the publication of treaties of Luca Pacioli, whose first book, published in 1494 under the title Summa de Arithmetica, Geometria, Proportioni et Proportionalita, sets out the fundamental principles in the chapter on accounts.

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