Computer security – Understanding popular hacking techniques

software developer

Social Engineering

Describes a technique that makes it possible to covertly access social contacts.

Trojan Horse

A Trojan horse is a program that is disguised as a useful application in the background but without the user’s knowledge fulfills a different (dubious) function.

Backdoor

This term refers to a computer program that allows users to gain access to the computer or an otherwise protected function of a computer program while bypassing the normal access control.

As an example, use of a special (usually secretly installed by a trojan) software that allows a corresponding remote access to the computer system.

Rootkits

Rootkit technology is used to hide certain objects and activities from the eyes of the user.

They are usually installed after breaking into a computer system on the compromised system in order to hide secret processes and files, and to hide future logins of the infiltrator.

Denial of Service (DoS)

Does an out of state reduction of a network service, such as congestion.

Exploit

An exploit is a computer program or script that takes advantage of weaknesses or failures of another computer program to gain escalated privileges or to perform a DoS attack.

Vulnerability Scanner

This technique is used for automatic analysis of computer systems. These programs search for vulnerabilities in an application, a computer or a network and can help to identify vulnerabilities.

Sniffer

A network sniffer can be used for this purpose to spy on passwords and view transmitted data.

Keylogger

A technique for recording keystrokes, for example, to access passwords.

Virus

A computer virus is a computer program or script which has the special property to reproduce itself as soon as it is executed once. Thus, the virus enters to other media , such as network drives, and removable media.

Through user interaction which connects an infected removable media to another system or boot an infected file , the virus code also passes there for execution, whereby further systems are infected by the virus.

In addition to the secret spread the harmful function of the virus by the user uncontrollable changes in the system can occur. In this way it is possible to compromise many computers in a corporate network or web server.

Worm

In contrast to the virus, a computer worm requires an already installed program on the system utility , which it uses to copy to another system. This could for instance be a particular e- mail program that remotely controls the worm in order to distribute to many recicipients.

Therefore, this method is very efficient. On systems that do not have the necessary utility , the worm can not reproduce though.

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