The main purpose of Internet domain names and domain name system (DNS) is to translate IP addresses of each active node in the network, to easy to find storable terms.
This abstraction enables any service (network) to move from one location to another on the Internet.
Without the help of the domain name system, Internet users would have to access each web service using the IP address of the node (for example, it would be necessary to use 188.8.131.52 instead of http://example.com).
Difference between URL address and domain name
The following example illustrates the difference between a URL (Uniform Resource Locator) and a domain name:
URL : http://www.example.net/index.html
Top-level domain name: net
Domain name : example.net
hostname : www.example.net
When the Domain Name System (DNS) was created in the 80s, the name space was divided into two. The first includes the domains, based on the two characters which identify each territory abbreviations according to ISO – 3166. (Eg * . Do , * . Mx).
The first is called the ccTLD ( top level domain country code or Country Code Top level Domain), the second, includes a group of seven generic top-level domains ( gTLDs) , representing a number of names and multi – organizations : GOV, EDU, COM, MIL, ORG, NET and INT.
CcTLD based domains are administered by nonprofit organizations in each country, delegated by IANA and ICANN.
The growth of the Internet has led to the creation of new gTLDs. As of May 2012 , there are 22 gTLDs and 293 ccTLD.
The list of top-level domains can be found in the Annex.
Examples of names of top-level domain
. ar for services in Argentina
. asia , Asia
. biz intended to be used by businesses .
. bo for services in Bolivia
. ca for Canada services
. cat , for pages related to Catalan culture and language .
. cc for services Cocos Islands
. cl for services in Chile
. co for services in Colombia
. cn , for service in China
. com domains are the most widespread in the world. Used for any type of website theme.
. cr for services in Costa Rica
. cu for services in Cuba
. do , for services Dominican Republic
. ec for services in Ecuador
. edu for education services
. ‘s for services in Spain
. eu for European countries
. eus , for pages related to Basque culture and language .
. fm for country pages Federated States of Micronesia , but also used for radio frequency modulation
. fr for services in France
. gal to pages related to the culture and language ( Gallego ) of the autonomous community of Galicia , Spain .
. gov and . gob, for government and public entities
. gt for services in Guatemala
. hn for services in Honduras
. info , for information
. int , for international entities , organizations such as the UN
. jobs, for departments of employment and human resources in companies
. lat, the Latin American
. lu , for services in Luxembourg
. me for services in Montenegro
. thousand , for the Department of Defense of the United States ( only country with top-level domain for the military )
. mobi for mobile phone companies and mobile services .
. museum , for museums
. mx for Mexico services
. nor , for services companies and Nicaragua
. name , for names of people
. net, network infrastructure
. nl to pages Holland
. org for
. pa for Panama pages
. eg for Peru pages
. pro , for professionals with a university degree .
. py for services in Paraguay
. ru for Russian services
. sv for services in El Salvador
. tel for Internet communication services
. tk Tokelau to country pages , but are also used as domain and server itself ( ” autonomous ” ) . Currently are available for free.
. travel to sites of travel and tourism industry .
. tv for Tuvalu country pages , but also used for television stations
. ua , for pages of Ukraine
. uy for services in Uruguay
. sees Venezuela for services
. web is an internet domain level, unofficially proposed leading since 1995.
. ws is an Internet domain with meaning web site
. xxx for porn industry